What is Scoliosis?
Scoliosis is a spine disorder that causes an abnormal curve of the spine, or backbone. The spine has normal curves when looking from the side, but it should appear straight when looking from the front and Kyphosis is a curve seen from the side in which the spine is bent forward. There is a normal kyphosis in the middle (thoracic) spine. Lordosis is a curve seen from the side in which the spine is bent backward. There is a normal lordosis in the upper (cervical) spine and the lower (lumbar) spine. People with scoliosis develop additional curves to either side, and the bones of the spine twist on each other, forming a C or S shape in the spine.
Most cases of scoliosis are mild, but some children develop spine deformities that continue to get more severe as they grow. Severe scoliosis can be disabling. An especially severe spinal curve can reduce the amount of space within the chest, making it difficult for the lungs to function properly.
In these cases you need to get a scoliosis correction surgery.
Types of Scoliosis
Functional Scoliosis: In this type of scoliosis, the spine is normal, but an abnormal curve develops because of a problem somewhere else in the body. This could be caused by one leg being shorter than the other or by muscle spasms in the back. Tis will need a spine curve correction surgery.
Neuromuscular Scoliosis: In this type of scoliosis, there is a problem when the bones of the spine are formed. Either the bones of the spine fail to form completely or they fail to separate from each other during fetal development. This type of scoliosis develops in people with other disorders, including, birth defects and muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy, or Marfan's disease. People with these conditions often develop a long C-shaped curve and have weak muscles that are unable to hold them up straight. If the curve is present at birth, it is called congenital. This type of scoliosis is often much more severe and needs more aggressive treatment than other forms of scoliosis. In India these type of scioliosis needs scoliosis correction spine surgery wherein the correction is done through a cage or an implant.
Degenerative Scoliosis: Unlike the other forms of scoliosis that are found in children and teens, degenerative scoliosis occurs in older adults. It is caused by changes in the spine due to arthritis known as spondylosis. Weakening of the normal ligaments and other soft tissues of the spine combined with abnormal bone spurs can lead to an abnormal curvature of the spine. The spine can also be affected by osteoporosis, vertebral compression fractures, and disc degeneration.
Treatment for Scoliosis or Scoliosis Correction in India
If the curve stays below 40 degrees until the person is finished growing, it is not likely to get worse later in life. However, if the curve is greater than 40 degrees, it is likely to continue to get worse by 1-2 degrees each year for the rest of the person's life. If this is not prevented, the person could eventually be at risk for heart or lung problems. The goals of surgery for scoliosis or scoliosis correction surgery in India are correcting and stabilizing the curve, reducing pain, and restoring a more normal curve and appearance to the spinal column.
There are various techniques used for scoliosis correction surgery in India. One type of surgery for scoliosis involves posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation and bone grafting. This type of scoliosis correction surgery is performed through the patient's back while the patient lies on his or her stomach.
Another surgery option for scoliosis correction in India is an anterior approach, which means that the scoliosis correction surgery is conducted through the chest walls instead of entering through the patient's back. The patient lies on his or her side during the surgery for scoliosis in India. During this procedure, the surgeon makes incisions in the patient's side, deflates the lung, and removes a rib in order to reach the spine.
Signs and Symptoms
Constipation due to tightened organs from curvature
Pain in back, shoulders, and neck and buttock pain nearest bottom of the back
Nerve pinching of the leg may cause the legs to cut out
Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea) because of a secondary pelvic tilt
Uneven musculature on one side of the spine
Rib prominence or a prominent shoulder blade, caused by rotation of the rib cage in thoracic scoliosis
Heart and lung problems in severe cases
Dr Manoj Miglani
Dr Manoj Miglani is a Consultant Orthopaedics and Spine Surgeon at Fortis Hospital, New Delhi. He has a vast experience of operating on complex to simple spine surgeries and his expertise lies in scoliosis surgery. A renowned Spinal Surgeon who is soft to speak to is well known among his patients for his skills and expertise in all spine related treatments and surgeries. Specialised in Spinal Scoliosis cases.
Dr Arun Saroha
Dr. Arun Saroha is one of the leading Brain & Spine Surgeons in India. Dr Saroha did his specialized training in Neurosurgery encompassing both and brain and spine surgeries from PGI Chandigarh, India. He has extensive experience of working at some of the best Neurosurgical hospitals like VIMHANS, New Delhi, India, Paras Institute of Neurosciences and Artemis Hospitals, Gurgaon, India. Dr Arun saroha is currently the Senior Brain & Spine surgeon and Unit Head Neurosurgery at Max Hospital, Gurgaon and New Delhi, India and GNH Hospital, Gurgaon. Dr Arun has extensive experience in the field of Brain Tumour Surgery, Brain Aneurysms, Spine Surgeries, Spine Instrumentation surgeries, Management of head injury patients.